Best 3D Printing Pens to Use in 2017 – Squeeze to Draw.

best 3d pen
best 3d pen

3D Printing Pens Are an Amazing Creation to Draw Your Imaginations.

Are you going to draw a giant Autobot for the next series of the Transformers? You will definitely need one of the best 3D pens to start.

Did you ever think you could write in the air?

As much as this concept seems impossible or hard to believe, a 3D pen will let you lift your imaginations to the skies and beyond a piece of paper. It must have been a dream sometime back to be able to draw 3D, but today it is a reality. All thanks to the makers of 3D pens, now you can do a lot with this piece of technology that looks nothing less than a regular pen. Let that wondrous imagination out and bring your cool 3D pen drawings to life.

The 3D pens came as a surprise to many people. They never knew that a small piece of technology like these pens existed that can allow you to draw in the air. Though the pen is gaining considerable popularity amongst artists, those people who have a flair for creativity and want to unleash it somehow are also into it.

3D pens look exactly like a regular pen or pencil, only bulkier. The only difference is ordinary pens and pencils require traditional ink or lead for usage, but a 3D pen uses plastic for it to operate. And there is no need of a 3D printer. The power has been transferred to the hands of the user now. The pens are relatively low-powered than the printers.

Let your creativity run wild; let your imagination on the loose. Don’t shy away, don’t hesitate. The possibilities are countless. There are many ways to use these 3D pens. And the best part is, they are easy to use and you use it like an ordinary pencil or pen.

How Do 3D Pens Work?

The 3D pen operates just like a usual pen, only instead of ink, it uses plastic. You can insert a plastic filament in the pen. The pen is equipped with some mains-powered heating technology that heats the plastic so that it melts and comes out of the nozzle. Once the plastic turns into liquid form, you can squeeze it out and make objects either in the air or any surface. The choice is yours! As soon as the plastic comes out, it cools off to form the object you’re creating.

A 3D printer uses ABS plastic and the 3D pens use the same. The pens work similarly to a 3D printer and the user can create 3-dimensional shapes and objects with the use of this amazing invention.

The 3D pens come in different colors so that you can fully use your imagination and be as creative as you like. There is no limit to it.

Types Of 3D Pens.

There are basically two types of 3D pens. These are the regular pens that use plastic filament and the other one uses ink.

  • Plastic Filament 3D Pen

This 3D pen works more like a hot glue gun. You can draw on the surface as well as in the air. You can create real 3D shapes and objects in real time. It’s a lot of fun drawing with these pens. You can add a whole new dimension to your creativity and to your drawing. Doodling has never been this exciting.

  • Ink Pens

These pens let you draw images and objects just like a 3D pen, only better. A 3D pen that uses plastic filament has a heating system equipped but there are no hot parts in the ink pens. There’s no worry of you burning your hands accidently. Also, people of all age groups from young kids to elderly can use this pen. This pen is a much safer option for kids.

Key Factors Of 3D Pens.

The 3D factor is nothing new. This 3D concept was up and introduced a few years back and the idea has been increasingly becoming popular by the day. Today, the makers of 3D pens have launched new technology in the market that allows you to paint and draw on any surface. And that’s not it, you can even draw in the air.

The 3D pens have flooded the market and there are countless choices to choose from. There are different types of pens with different models and different requirements. Finding the right pen can be an overwhelming task sometimes. But when you take into account certain factors and specifications, it will be easy for you to find the right pen for you.

Important Things To Consider Before Buying a 3D Pen.

When you’re buying a 3D pen for you, and you want to have the best one, you can take into consideration certain factors to make things easy for you so you only buy one of the best 3d pens available on the market. Buy a pen that meets your specifications and requirements. Apart from that, there are a few other aspects you need to consider while seeking the best 3D pen for your creative mind.


3D pens are only equipped with plastic filaments. They have a heating system within them that melts the plastic to form a liquid. But there is no software installed in the pens or they do not require any computer aid and assistance. You only need to attach these stylish pens to a power source to get the heating process started. The plastic will melt as soon as it comes in contact with the heat but the instant it comes out, it cools down.

However, to find the best 3D pen, you need to look closely and find out if there are any additional features being offered. Each pen is created by different companies and they will offer their own set of options and features. Look out for these extra features before the purchase.

Control Type.

A good 3D pen is recognized by the type of control it offers. That extra bit of control gives it that extra bit of edge. If a pen allows you to control the temperature while drawing or the extrusion, that pen will stand out in the lot. When you have the power to control speed, it will be comforting and easy for you to draw images with ease.

Similarly, temperature regulation will let you tune your uneven drawing to new heights. You can have the best 3D experience when you have the ability to regulate your drawing. Moreover, these factors create massive appeals.

Plastic Filament.

Just like the market is full of different types of 3D pens, the same way there are many different types of filaments you can choose from. Choosing one of the best 3D pens also depends on the type of plastic filament you choose. If you want a long lasting pen, use a 3D filament that can be replaced for future projects.

Brands and Manufacturers.

The best 3D pen brand is not hard to find. There are several brands and manufacturers out there producing 3D pens. It can sometimes be confusing to choose a brand or manufacturers because they all seem great but there is a fine line that separates the good ones from the best ones. Every brand you will come across will claim to be the creator of the best 3D pen.

However, a limited number of 3D pens have actually proven results. Regardless of the claims, you need to check the brand, read thoroughly about the manufacturer and their product, and only then decide which one you think is the best. Reading reviews will also be helpful.

Customer reviews will come really in handy when you’re making the purchase. The reviews are based on real experiences of customers. How they felt about the product and if it can be great for long term use and the features it was offering. A customer will base their review on all these factors and how they found the pen. You can read these reviews about certain 3D pens and then decide which one could be the best one for you.

The Usage Of 3D Pens.

There are plenty of uses of a 3D pen other than artistic purpose only. As much as artists can create 3D sculptors, there’s more to the use of these pens like repairs or for decoration. Also, the 3D pens can be used to weld large models but will only be helpful for smaller welding.

The main use of 3D pens is as follows.

  • Artistic use
  • Decorative use
  • 3D pens with useful tools
  • Is 3D pen better than a printer?

Artistic Use.

A 3D printer creates thin plastic strands to create objects. A 3D pen works similar to that. It creates these thin strands to form objects and shapes of any kind. But there are times when printing fails and the plastic strands do not adhere to the surface the way they were supposed to. On the other hand, a 3D pen is much closer to the temperature that melts plastic effectively and easily. And as soon as the plastic leaves the gun, it hardens instantly allowing a firmer print of the object.

However, you should remember that a pen requires practice, persistence, and patience. You cannot expect to be an expert just in the very beginning. Even if the most known of artists got hold of the best 3D pen for artists and their kin, they would require more than just mere talent. Moreover, there are many parts that are difficult to handle. Maneuvering your hand correctly and making the shape right, while making parts of an overhanging can be a rather tough job. Make it too slow and the plastic can just drop and make it too fast and it won’t catch the shape you’re looking for. Practice a lot and be patient.


The 3D pens have more use than just artistic purposes. You can use them for decoration as well. You can add a new shape, design or some decoration to a part or perhaps you can design your own name on a part in an alluring and attractive hand-written style. To make the designs prominent and pop out, the user can make layers.

3D Pens With Useful Tools.

There are times when 3D prints aren’t as perfect. But the pens can make the print perfect by adding strands to the missing area. The pens can be used for welding purposes. The pen will serve as a hot-glue that welds parts together where it is difficult for the printer. Also, if there is a printed part that needs fixing, the pen can be great for repairing the damage. But again, you need to remember that firm, steady hands and patience is the key to making these fixes. Your initial attempts will be a lot messier than the ones you make after several tries.

Is a 3D Pen Better Than a Printer?

Though you can get precise printing from a printer, it does miss the creativity part. Pens are more fluid and you can use your creativity to the most. A 3D pen doesn’t require any software or computer assistance—do note that some printers work harmoniously with the best 3D printing pens. You just need to use a bit of your imagination and start drafting your images. But the printer will require a 3D file before you can even do anything. This makes 3D pens a far better option than the printer itself. However, the printers are precise and create excellent prototype parts. Their importance cannot be ignored, either.

Best 3D Pens Available In the Market.

Since we’ve discussed all these factors, now comes the real deal. It is now time to look into the best 3D pens that are on the top of the list for a reason. From the dozens of pens, the best ones have something special to be on the top, to stand out amongst other similar gadgets. With that said, we have penned down all those 3D pens that are the best amongst the rest. The list will make it easy for creative minds to select the right piece of technology for their needs.

Following is a list of the best 3D pens alongside their descriptions, specs, features, reviews, pros, and cons. This will give you a better understanding of these pens and which one you think will work best for you.

Scribbler 3D Pen V3

Scribbler 3D Pen V3
Scribbler 3D Pen V3

Scribbler 3D pen has been in the 3D market for a fair time now. The pen is taking 3D enthusiasts by surprise. It is a predecessor of the legacy Scribbler Pen. The pen weighs 67 grams and is equipped with an LCD screen. Its dimensions are 6x2x4 inches. Use the Scribbler for the best 3D pen drawings that will make you day.

It has the best build quality – perhaps one of the best features of note in the gadget. Using this pen is like a breeze, soft and smooth.

The Scribbler 3D pen offers a total of 8 different colors for the beginners but other plastic colored filaments can be used once you get the hang of it. It is quite easy to use and very light in weight. You won’t find anything difficult about the pen. This pen is great for those in their beginning phase.


  • This is an incredibly light-weight pen.
  • It is equipped with an OLED screen which is relatively larger and enhances usability.
  • The pen is convenient and extremely responsive.
  • You can create shapes on any type of surface.


  • For traditional artists, the pen might feel a little uneasy and bulky to use.

Being lightweight and exclusively fundamental, the Scribble 3D is best suited to beginners and newbie designers.

Samto 3D Stereoscopic Printing Pen

Samto 3D Stereoscopic Printing Pen
Samto 3D Stereoscopic Printing Pen

On of the top return, the Samto 3D Stereoscopic Printing Pen is far better than the first generation 3Doodler pen. It’s much slimmer. The pen features many different colors other than black and an LED screen, weighing only 10.4 ounces.

This is another great 3D pen for those just starting to doodle. For slow and fast extrusion, the pen has a speed control so that you can manage things as you go. It also has temperature control for easy working. The pen is a charm to work with once you get familiar with it.


  • If you do not use the pen for 5 minutes or more, it goes into an idle mode automatically.
  • It’s much more slender and slimmer than the previous generation pen.
  • If there is a filament jam, the pen will easily detect it and notify.


  • The performance is quite unpredictable. The pen will either work perfectly well or it won’t work at all.
  • The instructions that come with the pen are very poor. Users usually don’t read the instructions which is a huge fail on the company’s part.

Since Samto has a go-into-idle-mode feature, designers who have ventured a little further in 3D sculpting can find its use more convenient—knowing how luxurious this functionality can be during work and the frequent, necessary breaks from it.

LIX 3D Smart Pen

LIX 3D Smart Pen
LIX 3D Smart Pen

This 40-gram pen that comes equipped with LED heat indicator, took the world by surprise. It wouldn’t be if we call this one the best 3D pen on the market. This is one of the smallest 3D pens, unlike other similar pens that are relatively larger in size. The pen took the world by storm as it gained massive appreciation from both critics and consumers alike. This pen is a complete powerhouse for your pocket.

The LIX is easy to use and has perhaps passed all usability tests. It performs absolutely great and is a very fine pen. LIX doesn’t make much noise and you can create high-quality shapes with this pen. It is made out of the finest material. The pen is perfect for almost any surface type. It works amazingly well, without any trouble.

The pen can be powered through a USB, unlike other pens that need power.


  • Responsive, extremely lightweight, and very easy to use.
  • The pen has the tendency to heat the plastic filament and let it cool down instantly and quite swiftly.
  • The pen is built out of top-notch material.
  • A lot of hard work and efforts went into the fine detailing and style.


  • Surprisingly, there are no downsides to this pen. The LIX is perfect in every way.

This pen is best suited for professional designers who have multiple extensive projects on the lists.

7TECH 3D Printing Pen

7TECH 3D Printing Pen
7TECH 3D Printing Pen

Another great pen which is beautifully designed, the 7Tech was built with a sole purpose in mind; to be extremely user-friendly. This pen can also be considered a twin to the Samto Pen. Other than a few tweaks, the pen has very similar design and shape. For instance, the pen has a similar LED screen to display speed and temperature and also indicate any jam. This slim pen seems quite credible and reliable. The pen is also equipped with some amazing features other than being incredibly silent and slim making it a one-of-its-kind 3D gadget.

The pen weighs only 65 grams and is 7.3×1.6×1.1 in dimension. This lightweight pen is appealing and conveniently easy to use making it the perfect choice for many.

The pen features one of the best thermal controls and also, you are instantly notified if there is any jam. You also have power over extrusion control which makes it the perfect choice for beginners as well as experts.

However, the pen does have a couple minor issues. The first one being the pen can get very hot while in functional mode. Also, is lacks filament supply. While operating the pen, make sure you don’t hurt yourself as the temperature can go really high and it can burn skin.


  • An extremely easy-to-use 3D pen for newbies as well as seasoned artists.
  • There is an unclogging system equipped with the pen which prevents the plastic filament from blocking the nozzle once it cools down and the plastic takes back its original shape in the pen.
  • A slim and lightweight pen that is silent in use.
  • You can protect your hands and fingers from the nozzle because the pen comes with an aluminum spatula.
  • One additional bonus is you won’t find with other pens is a year warranty.


  • The temperature can get unbearable for the user.
  • The filaments that come with the pen are inadequate.

The 7TECH 3D makes for a perfect choice for hobbyists and similar designers.



This pen entered the 3D market only this year. The MYNT3D is equipped with features to enhance usability and user experience. The pen weighs 9.6 ounces and features an OLED. The OLED is very useful while adjusting the temperature of the pen during drawing. Being extremely lighter than competitors, users find this pen to be a great choice.

This pen is also a great choice for young kids and elders alike. The pen has a ‘double tap’ option which allows you to move your finger anywhere rather than just the output button. This way, you can draw continuously without having to hold down the output button for as long as you are drawing.

The one flaw in the pen is it isn’t as smooth. Sometimes, the filament jams.


  • An easy to use pen
  • Extremely lightweight and a great option for kids.
  • It comes with an OLED screen to help you control temperature.
  • As compared to other 3D pens, the MYNT3D is affordable.


  • The pen is clogged with filament making it a bit difficult to draw continuously.

Not preferable for professionals because of its debilitating drawbacks. The beginning class, however, can use what this pen has to offer to get a gist of designing through such pens and to look for a better one when they’ve learned enough.

ccbetter Intelligent 3D Pen

ccbetter Intelligent 3D Pen
ccbetter Intelligent 3D Pen

The ccbetter Intelligent pen, which sold under the name Joyluxy Intelligent 3D, is considered to be one of the best pens of this year. The pen is quite basic but features all the options a good 3D pen must have. The pen has easy to use options for newcomers and seasoned artists. It comes in a regular smartphone-sized box and features two filaments. The manufacturer also added a stand on which you can place the pen when you’re not using it. The pen can work on any surface. The user experience is excellent.

The pen is 55 grams in weight and comes with an OLED. The screen indicates when the filament is hot enough for use.

There aren’t any downsides to the pen. The pen is near to perfect.


  • The pen, unlike other similar gadgets, is appealing, attractive, and vibrant.
  • This is one of the most basic pens with all necessary features for great use.
  • If the pen faces any problems, they are easy to fix.
  • An easy to use 3D pen for newbies and veteran artists.
  • The pen holder is an incredibly exciting addition, especially for those who are a bit clumsy with such delicate products.


  • None found whatsoever.

If pretty is what you’re looking for, then the ccBetter awaits. It’s not a bad choice for beginners, either.

Lay3r 3D Pens

Lay3r 3D Pens
Lay3r 3D Pens

The name may sound a little clumsy but this product is amazing in every way. It took the world by surprise with its incredible features and amazing options.

The pen is relatively larger as compared to other 3D pens but it isn’t at all heavy. In fact, the larger size gives amazing handling. This easy-to-use device comes with proper instructions that even a 10-year-old can use the pen without any errors.

No matter what your skills or experience level is, you can use the pen regardless of any age group, too.

The pen is only 0.8 lbs. in weight, however, it doesn’t feature an LED screen.

The pen has a fan installed in it to keep it cool while you use it. Also, there is an automatic shutdown option when the pen isn’t used for long enough.


  • The pen is easy to use.
  • Built from the finest quality material.
  • The pen offers some really exciting features.
  • The fan included for cooling is an appreciable feature.
  • It features a one-year warranty.


  • The cherry on top – the fan – has a little drawback as the pen is a bit large in size.
  • This oversized pen is a little difficult to handle.

The Lay3r isn’t as popular as the rest of its contenders. If your hands have a way with making even the most trifling of objects to submit to smooth work, then you should consider buying Lay3r. However, be warned. This pen is heavy.

GENESIS 3D Printing Pen

GENESIS 3D Printing Pen
GENESIS 3D Printing Pen

The manufacturer of this pen is renowned globally for 3D printers. This beautifully designed pen looks delicate and sophisticated. However, the pen is nowhere near being small in size or as slim as other competitors. That being said, when the pen comes to drawing, it gives a run for their money to other 3D pens in the same race. This tough competitor gives other 3D pens a really hard time.

This lightweight pen, weighing only 48 grams and equipped with LED screen, is easy to use. It doesn’t get hot enough to handle, is smooth and consistent, and doesn’t get stuck. It comes with 5 filaments – a very generous addition by the company.

The pen doesn’t have many flaws. It is nearly perfect.


  • Extremely easy to use. Suitable for kids and seasoned artists alike.
  • One of those pens that is capable of using different types of plastic filaments.
  • It uses a good quality material for a great built.
  • Extremely lightweight and offers a great user experience.
  • Comes with warranty.


  • The pen can heat up when you use it for projects of large scales.

Suitable for small-scale projects and usage. A bad choice for arduous work.

3Doodler Pen

3Doodler Pen
3Doodler Pen

This is a very stylish pen with an amazing look and feel. The box comes with whooping 50 filaments which are a big surprise. This black colored pen is something out of a stylish movie. The filaments are easy to change. There is no complaint of it being clogged.

This pen is slightly heavy, weighing 130 grams and also doesn’t come with LED.

The pen is easy to use and nearly perfect for any surface type. The pen is a great addition for seasoned drawers/artists.


  • One of the most stylish pens there is. Sleek and elegant in design.
  • One of the finest quality built.
  • Easy to use and easy to change filament.
  • No complaint of the pen clogging.
  • Comes with whooping 50 filaments.


  • Slightly heavier than other pens.
  • There is a learning curve therefore not recommended for newbies.

There is more than meets the eye when this one is concerned. Don’t let the appealing design deceive you. The 3Doodler requires a lot of practice, making it an unsuitable pick for beginners.

Glyby Intelligent 3D Printing Pen

Glyby Intelligent 3D Printing Pen
Glyby Intelligent 3D Printing Pen

The pen has been hailed as the best thing there is. The pen isn’t that good looking but the functionality beats this drawback. Being the cheapest one, and also not one that gives the best 3D pen art, the Glyby Intelligent 3D Printing Pen has nevertheless shown some amazing and groundbreaking performances.

The pen weighs 68 grams but it doesn’t come with LED screen.

The pen was built keeping in mind the perspective of kids. This is not a highly professional gadget so if you’re looking into investing in something more capable, you should probably spend your money elsewhere.

This 3D pen is a good gadget. It has all the features that will keep the kids happy.


  • Affordable and easy to use, especially for kids.
  • Fine quality built.
  • The look and feel appeal to young kids


  • Not recommended for professional use.

Glyby is an excellent choice for adolescents. Partly because of its color, which is something that will excite children, and majorly because it is ill-suited to professional use.

CreoPop Cordless Pen

CreoPop Cordless Pen
CreoPop Cordless Pen

This 3D pen is considered revolutionary. But what makes it so special? Well, unlike other pens, the CreoPop Cordless – just as the name suggests – doesn’t need any wire to operate. No wire means you have insanely countless possibilities and probabilities with this one. It comes packed with amazing features that are going to blow your mind. Here’s another incredibly insane feature: other pens have heating systems to melt the filament but the CreoPop doesn’t. Pretty cool, isn’t it? This pen uses plastic but there is no heating device in it to melt down the filament.

Most 3D pens use thermoplastics but this pen uses photopolymers. This is a different type of ink. The ink will liquefy the minute it comes in contact with LED diodes. This easy to use 3D pen is a great option for kids.


  • Most innovative pen. Unique, one-of-its-kind.
  • It can use scented inks as well for a pleasant atmosphere.
  • The pen produces objects that remain fresher as compared to other 3D pens.


  • The design isn’t that appealing.
  • You cannot find the supported ink everywhere. Only the manufacturers provide it at the moment.

If you find the odor the ink pens use abhorrent, you should buy the CreoPop. It has pleasant-smelling ink and you won’t be sorry investing in it.



3Doodler 2.0

3Doodler 2.0
3Doodler 2.0

The 3Doodler2.0 is the successor to 3Doodler, the first ever 3D pen in the market. The pen is an upgrade with a funky new feel to it. The pen is more sophisticated and elegant than the previous version of the 3D pen. This pen features 50 filaments which is an amazing number.

This 3D pen is way better than the predecessor. It performed excellently in every test. You can work this pen on a number of surfaces. It’s easy to use and there is no trouble with clogging or heating up.


  • Fairly easy to use.
  • Features heaps of accessories.
  • The design has been improved to a lot better looking one.


  • The tip of the pen isn’t at all made of good quality material. It’s pretty below par.
  • According to some users, the pen doesn’t work as great after some use.

If you’re enchanted by the 3Doodler and wish there could be more to it, then 3Doodler 2.0 is what you need. As the name suggests, this upgraded version was made keeping in mind some drawbacks of its predecessor.


Soyan 3D Printing Pen


Another great 3D pen to lift your imagination off the page and in the air. The Soyan

Soyan 3D Printing Pen
Soyan 3D Printing Pen

3D pen is a smart looking device that is easy to use and has a very slim design. The pen is elegant looking and pretty light in weight. There are options to control extrusion speed to make operations far smoother. You can create endless creations with the Soyan 3D Printing Pen.

The possibilities are endless with this pen. You can use it on any surface. The pen is suitable for everybody.


  • Easy to use and light in weight.
  • Suitable for users of every age.
  • Sleek, smart, and elegant design.


  • Slight issues with the pen feed. It can get too hot
  • The Filament as easily controlled as you think. It comes out either too slow or too fast.

The Soyan is best known for its ability to be used on any surface possible. If you do not wish to be restricted by the limits of other pens of being used on multiple surfaces, buy the Soyan 3D.


Polyes Q1 3D Pen

Polyes Q1 3D Pen
Polyes Q1 3D Pen

Now this pen is one-of-a-kind. Mainly, 3D pens use plastic filaments but this one uses cool ink. There is no danger of the pen being heated or you burning yourself. It comes equipped with a Child Safety Switch. You can switch it on when your 3-year-old uses it to ensure they aren’t harmed. Not many pens have this technology in it.

The pen has a built-in battery. You don’t have to worry about the wires getting hot or plugging it in before using it. You can use it for straight one hour without having to charge it. The Polyes Q1 is easy to use and suitable for all surfaces.

It is easy to handle and a great option for beginners.


  • Uses cool ink instead of ABS/PLA filament.
  • Comes with a safety switch for kids.
  • Wireless 3D pen


  • There weren’t many issues found with the pen.

Best suited for continuous work.

AtmosFlare 3D Pen

AtmosFlare 3D Pen
AtmosFlare 3D Pen

This pen is another great creation. It’s so simple to use; it’s like just squeezing it and let your hand do the rest. The 3D pen comes with LED light that is helpful in many ways.

Let your imagination go wild and draw on any possible surface you can find. It uses special ink that will allow you to draw 3D objects in the air and on surfaces.

This 3D pen is easy to use. You can also clean it easily with your hand. Only let it cool down before you do that.


  • Easy to use a 3D pen.
  • Affordable price.
  • Can be used on any surface.


  • It comes with only two colored plastic filaments.
  • The ink is a little sticky.

If you’re looking for an affordable pen that takes care of the basics, AtmosFlare is your pen.


Final Word

3D pens are the thing of today. They are the best thing to have for school projects and small-scale exhibitions. With countless choices and amazing features, the 3D pens make itself an adequate choice for creative minds pouring with brilliant ideas. This relatively new market has a great appeal to it.

This list compiled will help users pick the best 3D pens for themselves. The many features, pros, and cons will help you decide the product perfect for your doodling needs. Make the best choice with the help of our list and let your imagination run wild and loose. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Read about our Affiliates Disclosure Policy here. Amazon and the Amazon logo are trademarks of, Inc. or its affiliates.